Employee discretion is inversely related to ________


A) complexity
B) formalization
C) specialization
D) departmentalization
E) empowerment


Explanation: B) Where formalization is low, job behaviors are relatively unprogrammed, and employees have a great deal of freedom to exercise discretion in their work. Standardization not only eliminates the possibility of employees engaging in alternative behaviors, but it even removes the need for employees to consider alternatives.